Opcodes used in Bitcoin Script

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This is a list of all Script words, also known as opcodes, commands, or functions.

OP_NOP1-OP_NOP10 were originally set aside to be used when HASH and other security functions become insecure due to improvements in computing.

False is zero or negative zero (using any number of bytes) or an empty array, and True is anything else.

Constants

When talking about scripts, these value-pushing words are usually omitted.

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_0, OP_FALSE 0 0x00 Nothing. (empty value) An empty array of bytes is pushed onto the stack. (This is not a no-op: an item is added to the stack.)
Pushdata Bytelength 1-75 0x01-0x4b (special) data The next opcode bytes is data to be pushed onto the stack
OP_PUSHDATA1 76 0x4c (special) data The next byte contains the number of bytes to be pushed onto the stack.
OP_PUSHDATA2 77 0x4d (special) data The next two bytes contain the number of bytes to be pushed onto the stack in little endian order.
OP_PUSHDATA4 78 0x4e (special) data The next four bytes contain the number of bytes to be pushed onto the stack in little endian order.
OP_1NEGATE 79 0x4f Nothing. -1 The number -1 is pushed onto the stack.
OP_1, OP_TRUE 81 0x51 Nothing. 1 The number 1 is pushed onto the stack.
OP_2-OP_16 82-96 0x52-0x60 Nothing. 2-16 The number in the word name (2-16) is pushed onto the stack.

Flow control

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_NOP 97 0x61 Nothing Nothing Does nothing.
OP_VER DISABLED 98 0x62 Nothing Protocol version Puts the version of the protocol under which this transaction will be evaluated onto the stack.

(This opcode is scheduled to be re-enabled in the Chronicle update)

OP_IF 99 0x63 <expression> IF
   [statements>

ELSE

   [statements]

ENDIF

If the top stack value is not FALSE, the statements between IF and ELSE are executed.

If the top stack value is FALSE the statements between ELSE and ENDIF are executed.
The top stack value is removed.

OP_NOTIF 100 0x64 <expression> NOTIF
   [statements]

ELSE

   [statements]

ENDIF

If the top stack value is FALSE, the statements between IF and ELSE are executed.

If the top stack value is not FALSE the statements between ELSE and ENDIF are executed.
The top stack value is removed.

OP_VERIF DISABLED 101 0x65 <version> VERIF
   [statements]

ELSE

   [statements]

ENDIF

If the top stack value is EQUAL to the version of the protocol under which this transaction will be evaluated, the statements between IF and ELSE are executed.

If the top stack value is NOT EQUAL to the version of the protocol under which this transaction will be evaluated, the statements between ELSE and ENDIF are executed.
The top stack value is removed. (This opcode is scheduled to be re-enabled in the Chronicle update)

OP_VERNOTIF DISABLED 102 0x66 <version> VERNOTIF
   [statements]

ELSE

   [statements]

ENDIF

If the top stack value is NOT EQUAL to the version of the protocol under which this transaction will be evaluated, the statements between IF and ELSE are executed.

If the top stack value is EQUAL to the version of the protocol under which this transaction will be evaluated, the statements between ELSE and ENDIF are executed.
The top stack value is removed. (This opcode is scheduled to be re-enabled in the Chronicle update)

OP_ELSE 103 0x67 <expression> if [statements] [else [statements]]* endif If the preceding OP_IF or OP_NOTIF or OP_ELSE was not executed then these statements are and if the preceding OP_IF or OP_NOTIF or OP_ELSE was executed then these statements are not.
OP_ENDIF 104 0x68 <expression> if [statements] [else [statements]]* endif Ends an if/else block. All blocks must end, or the transaction is invalid. An OP_ENDIF without a prior matching OP_IF or OP_NOTIF is also invalid.
OP_VERIFY 105 0x69 True / false Nothing / fail Marks transaction as invalid if top stack value is not true. The top stack value is removed.
OP_RETURN 106 0x6a Nothing Ends script with top value on stack as final result OP_RETURN can also be used to create "False Return" outputs with a scriptPubKey consisting of OP_FALSE OP_RETURN followed by data. Such outputs are provably unspendable and should be given a value of zero Satoshis. These outputs can be pruned from storage in the UTXO set, reducing its size. Currently the BitcoinSV network supports multiple FALSE RETURN outputs in a given transaction with each one capable of holding up to 100kB of data. After the Genesis upgrade in 2020 miners will be free to mine transactions containing FALSE RETURN outputs of any size.

Stack

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_TOALTSTACK 107 0x6b x1 (alt)x1 Puts the input onto the top of the alt stack. Removes it from the main stack.
OP_FROMALTSTACK 108 0x6c (alt)x1 x1 Puts the input onto the top of the main stack. Removes it from the alt stack.
OP_2DROP 109 0x6d x1 x2 Nothing Removes the top two stack items.
OP_2DUP 110 0x6e x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 Duplicates the top two stack items.
OP_3DUP 111 0x6f x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 Duplicates the top three stack items.
OP_2OVER 112 0x70 x1 x2 x3 x4 x1 x2 x3 x4 x1 x2 Copies the pair of items two spaces back in the stack to the front.
OP_2ROT 113 0x71 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x3 x4 x5 x6 x1 x2 The fifth and sixth items back are moved to the top of the stack.
OP_2SWAP 114 0x72 x1 x2 x3 x4 x3 x4 x1 x2 Swaps the top two pairs of items.
OP_IFDUP 115 0x73 x x / x x If the top stack value is not 0, duplicate it.
OP_DEPTH 116 0x74 Nothing <Stack size> Counts the number of stack items onto the stack and places the value on the top
OP_DROP 117 0x75 x Nothing Removes the top stack item.
OP_DUP 118 0x76 x x x Duplicates the top stack item.
OP_NIP 119 0x77 x1 x2 x2 Removes the second-to-top stack item.
OP_OVER 120 0x78 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 Copies the second-to-top stack item to the top.
OP_PICK 121 0x79 xn ... x2 x1 x0 <n> xn ... x2 x1 x0 xn The item n back in the stack is copied to the top.
OP_ROLL 122 0x7a xn ... x2 x1 x0 <n> ... x2 x1 x0 xn The item n back in the stack is moved to the top.
OP_ROT 123 0x7b x1 x2 x3 x2 x3 x1 The top three items on the stack are rotated to the left.
OP_SWAP 124 0x7c x1 x2 x2 x1 The top two items on the stack are swapped.
OP_TUCK 125 0x7d x1 x2 x2 x1 x2 The item at the top of the stack is copied and inserted before the second-to-top item.

Data Manipulation

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_CAT 126 0x7e x1 x2 out Concatenates two strings.
OP_SPLIT 127 0x7f x n x1 x2 Splits byte sequence x at position n.
OP_NUM2BIN 128 0x80 a b out Converts numeric value a into byte sequence of length b.
OP_BIN2NUM 129 0x81 x out Converts byte sequence x into a numeric value.
OP_SIZE 130 0x82 in in size Pushes the string length of the top element of the stack (without popping it).

Bitwise logic

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_INVERT 131 0x83 in out Flips all of the bits in the input.
OP_AND 132 0x84 x1 x2 out Boolean and between each bit in the inputs.
OP_OR 133 0x85 x1 x2 out Boolean or between each bit in the inputs.
OP_XOR 134 0x86 x1 x2 out Boolean exclusive or between each bit in the inputs.
OP_EQUAL 135 0x87 x1 x2 True / false Returns 1 if the inputs are exactly equal, 0 otherwise.
OP_EQUALVERIFY 136 0x88 x1 x2 Nothing / fail Same as OP_EQUAL, but runs OP_VERIFY afterward.

Arithmetic

Note: Arithmetic inputs are limited to signed 32-bit integers, but may overflow their output.

If any input value for any of these commands is longer than 4 bytes, the script must abort and fail.

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_1ADD 139 0x8b in out 1 is added to the input.
OP_1SUB 140 0x8c in out 1 is subtracted from the input.
OP_2MUL DISABLED 141 0x8d in out The input is multiplied by 2. (This opcode is scheduled to be re-enabled in the Chronicle update)
OP_2DIV DISABLED 142 0x8e in out The input is divided by 2. (This opcode is scheduled to be re-enabled in the Chronicle update)
OP_NEGATE 143 0x8f in out The sign of the input is flipped.
OP_ABS 144 0x90 in out The input is made positive.
OP_NOT 145 0x91 in out If the input is 0 or 1, it is flipped. Otherwise the output will be 0.
OP_0NOTEQUAL 146 0x92 in out Returns 0 if the input is 0. 1 otherwise.
OP_ADD 147 0x93 a b out a is added to b.
OP_SUB 148 0x94 a b out b is subtracted from a.
OP_MUL 149 0x95 a b out a is multiplied by b.
OP_DIV 150 0x96 a b out a is divided by b.
OP_MOD 151 0x97 a b out Returns the remainder after dividing a by b.
OP_LSHIFT 152 0x98 a b out Logical left shift b bits. Sign data is discarded
OP_RSHIFT 153 0x99 a b out Logical right shift b bits. Sign data is discarded
OP_BOOLAND 154 0x9a a b out If both a and b are not 0, the output is 1. Otherwise 0.
OP_BOOLOR 155 0x9b a b out If a or b is not 0, the output is 1. Otherwise 0.
OP_NUMEQUAL 156 0x9c a b out Returns 1 if the numbers are equal, 0 otherwise.
OP_NUMEQUALVERIFY 157 0x9d a b Nothing / fail Same as OP_NUMEQUAL, but runs OP_VERIFY afterward.
OP_NUMNOTEQUAL 158 0x9e a b out Returns 1 if the numbers are not equal, 0 otherwise.
OP_LESSTHAN 159 0x9f a b out Returns 1 if a is less than b, 0 otherwise.
OP_GREATERTHAN 160 0xa0 a b out Returns 1 if a is greater than b, 0 otherwise.
OP_LESSTHANOREQUAL 161 0xa1 a b out Returns 1 if a is less than or equal to b, 0 otherwise.
OP_GREATERTHANOREQUAL 162 0xa2 a b out Returns 1 if a is greater than or equal to b, 0 otherwise.
OP_MIN 163 0xa3 a b out Returns the smaller of a and b.
OP_MAX 164 0xa4 a b out Returns the larger of a and b.
OP_WITHIN 165 0xa5 x min max out Returns 1 if x is within the specified range (left-inclusive), 0 otherwise.

Cryptography

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_RIPEMD160 166 0xa6 in hash The input is hashed using RIPEMD-160.
OP_SHA1 167 0xa7 in hash The input is hashed using SHA-1.
OP_SHA256 168 0xa8 in hash The input is hashed using SHA-256.
OP_HASH160 169 0xa9 in hash The input is hashed twice: first with SHA-256 and then with RIPEMD-160.
OP_HASH256 170 0xaa in hash The input is hashed two times with SHA-256.
OP_CODESEPARATOR 171 0xab Nothing Nothing All of the signature checking words will only match signatures to the data after the most recently-executed OP_CODESEPARATOR.
OP_CHECKSIG 172 0xac sig pubkey True / false The entire transaction's outputs, inputs, and script (from the most recently-executed OP_CODESEPARATOR to the end) are hashed. The signature used by OP_CHECKSIG must be a valid signature for this hash and public key. If it is, 1 is returned, 0 otherwise.
OP_CHECKSIGVERIFY 173 0xad sig pubkey Nothing / fail Same as OP_CHECKSIG, but OP_VERIFY is executed afterward.
OP_CHECKMULTISIG 174 0xae x sig1 sig2 ... <number of signatures> pub1 pub2 <number of public keys> True / False Compares the first signature against each public key until it finds an ECDSA match. Starting with the subsequent public key, it compares the second signature against each remaining public key until it finds an ECDSA match. The process is repeated until all signatures have been checked or not enough public keys remain to produce a successful result. All signatures need to match a public key. Because public keys are not checked again if they fail any signature comparison, signatures must be placed in the scriptSig using the same order as their corresponding public keys were placed in the scriptPubKey or redeemScript. If all signatures are valid, 1 is returned, 0 otherwise. Due to a bug, one extra unused value is removed from the stack.
OP_CHECKMULTISIGVERIFY 175 0xaf x sig1 sig2 ... <number of signatures> pub1 pub2 ... <number of public keys> Nothing / fail Same as OP_CHECKMULTISIG, but OP_VERIFY is executed afterward.

Used NOP opcode identifiers

In Bitcoin's history, new opcodes were added that used reserved NO_OP opcode identifiers. These opcodes have been reverted to the original OP_NOP functionality.

Word Opcode Hex Input Output Description
OP_NOP2

(previously OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY)

177 0xb1 Nothing

(Previously: x)

Nothing

(Previously: x or fail)

NO OPERATION

Evaluation process for UTXOs that pre-date genesis: Mark transaction as invalid if the top stack item is greater than the transaction's nLockTime field, otherwise script evaluation continues as though an OP_NOP was executed. Transaction is also invalid if 1. the stack is empty; or 2. the top stack item is negative; or 3. the top stack item is greater than or equal to 500000000 while the transaction's nLockTime field is less than 500000000, or vice versa; or 4. the input's nSequence field is equal to 0xffffffff. The precise semantics are described in BIP 0065.

OP_NOP3

(previously OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY)

178 0xb2 Nothing

(Previously: x)

Nothing

(Previously: x or fail)

NO OPERATION

Evaluation process for UTXOs that pre-date genesis: Mark transaction as invalid if the relative lock time of the input (enforced by BIP 0068 with nSequence) is not equal to or longer than the value of the top stack item. The precise semantics are described in BIP 0112.

Pseudo-words

These words are used internally for assisting with transaction matching. They are invalid if used in actual scripts.

Word Opcode Hex Description
OP_PUBKEYHASH 253 0xfd Represents a public key hashed with OP_HASH160.
OP_PUBKEY 254 0xfe Represents a public key compatible with OP_CHECKSIG.
OP_INVALIDOPCODE 255 0xff Matches any opcode that is not yet assigned.

Reserved words

Any opcode not assigned is also reserved. Using an unassigned opcode makes the transaction invalid.

Word Opcode Hex When used...
OP_RESERVED 80 0x50 Transaction is invalid unless occuring in an unexecuted OP_IF branch
OP_RESERVED1 137 0x89 Transaction is invalid unless occuring in an unexecuted OP_IF branch
OP_RESERVED2 138 0x8a Transaction is invalid unless occuring in an unexecuted OP_IF branch
OP_NOP1, OP_NOP4-OP_NOP10 176, 179-185 0xb0, 0xb3-0xb9 The word is ignored. Does not mark transaction as invalid.

Examples

For examples of common Bitcoin transaction scripts please see Bitcoin Transactions

Attribution

This content is based on content sourced from https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Script under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0. Although it may have been extensively revised and updated we acknowledge the original authors.